Nucleic acids

Nucleic acids

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Area of ​​Expertise - biochemistry

Nucleic acids are macromolecular compounds (polynucleotides) made up of nucleic acid bases (nucleobases), sugar and phosphoric acid. The following bases are mainly found in nucleic acids: adenine (6-aminopurine), thymine (2,6-dihydroxy-5-methyl-pyrimidine), guanine (2-amino-6-hydroxy-purine), uracil (2,6- Dihydroxypyrimidine) and cytosine (2-hydroxy-6-aminopyrimidine). Adenine and guanine are derived from purine, cytosine, thymine and uracil are derived from pyrimidine. In cells, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA or DNA) is the carrier of genetic information and passes this information on to ribonucleic acid (RNS or RNA) in the course of transcription.

A nucleic acid consists of two spirally wound nucleic acid strands (double helix), with guanine / cytosine and adenine / thymine or adenine / uracil facing each other.

All nucleic acid bases are solid and colorless substances that are difficult to dissolve in water and easily soluble in bases with salt formation.

Nucleosides are subunits of nucleotides and consist of base and sugar.

Nucleotides (nucleoside phosphates) are subunits of a nucleic acid and consist of base, sugar and phosphoric acid.

Learning units in which the term is discussed

Chemistry for Medicines: Heterocycles30 min.

BiochemistryChemical basicsNucleic acids

In this learning unit the most important heterocycles are presented. The focus is on nucleic acids.

History of DNA10 min.

BiochemistryProtein synthesisDNA

Presentation of the most important developments and people around the bearer of genetic information.

Modified nucleosides60 min.

BiochemistryMedicinal chemistry and biochemistryActive ingredients

Introduction to the variety of modified nucleosides and nucleotides

Building blocks of nucleic acids45 min.

BiochemistryChemical basicsNucleic acids

Introduction to the structure and reactivity of nucleobases using the example of ATP.

DNA structures90 min.

BiochemistryProtein synthesisDNA

Basics and peculiarities of the DNA structure

Protein-DNA interactions45 min.

BiochemistryProtein synthesisProteins

In this teaching unit the different ways of realizing the specific contact between nucleic acids and proteins are presented.

Video: 20. Υβριδοποίηση νουκλεϊκών οξέων- κλωνοποίηση με PCR 3 4ο κεφ. - Βιολογία Γ λυκείου (May 2022).