Overview of the various hydrogenation options

Overview of the various hydrogenation options

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Have you completed the learning unit Overview of the various hydrogenation options and are you looking for further material? Then we recommend the following learning units:

Hydrogenation of alkenes with noble metal catalysts20 min.

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This learning unit deals with the hydrogenation of alkenes with noble metal catalysts. The mechanism is shown using animations. The stereochemistry and chemoselectivity are also discussed.

Hydrogenation of alkynes with the Lindlar catalyst20 min.

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This learning unit describes the hydrogenation of alkynes with the Lindlar catalyst. The catalyst is discussed and the stereochemistry is shown.

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In addition to a brief introduction to the subject of "heterogeneous catalysis", some historical discoveries and milestones in catalyst development are shown.


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    Power functions



    Power functions are called all functions of the form: $ f (x) = a cdot x ^$, where $ a $ and $ n $ are arbitrary real numbers.

    In the following we consider power functions with whole exponents. Depending on which number the exponent is, there is a different function. A distinction is made here between four different cases:

    1st case: even, positive exponent



    Even and positive exponents

    the Functions always have the points $ P_1 (-1 | 1) $, $ S (0 | 0) $, $ P_2 (1 | 1) $.

    the only one Zero lies in the origin.

    Of the Domain of definition includes all real numbers, so D = .

    Of the Range of values is W = [0 & infin [

    The graph is axially symmetrical to the Y-axis.

    2nd case: odd, positive exponent



    Odd and positive exponents

    the Limit values strive for x 0 + & infin.

    the Functions have these points in common: $ P_1 (-1 | -1) $, $ S (0 | 0) $, $ P_2 (1 | 1) $.

    the only one Zero lies in the origin.

    Of the Domain of definition and the range of values ​​are D = W = .

    The functions are point-symmetrical to the origin.

    3rd case: even, negative exponent



    Even and negative exponent

    the Limit values are then as follows:

    If x strives for the value 0 (so the value always comes closer to the number zero), the y-values ​​strive for + & infin.

    If x strives for the value - | + & infin, the y values ​​strive for 0.

    The functions have these points in common: $ P_1 (-1 | 1) $, $ P_2 (1 | 1) $.

    There is no Zero.

    Of the Domain of definition is D = <0>.

    Of the Range of values is W =] 0 & infin [. These are all positive real numbers.

    The functions are all axially symmetrical to the y-axis.

    4th case: odd, negative exponent



    Odd and negative exponents

    the Limit values are as follows:

    Both the x and y axes are asymptotes.

    the Functions have these points in common: $ P_1 (-1 | -1) $, $ P_2 (1 | 1) $.

    There is no zeropoint.

    Of the Domain of definition and the Range of values are D = W = <0>.

    The functions are point-symmetrical to the origin.

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    Carboxylic acids

    On the five presentation slides on the subject of carboxylic acids there is a brief overview of the functional group, homologous series of alkanoic acids, carboxylic acids with different radicals (aliphatic, saturated, unsaturated, aromatic), properties (polarity, acid).

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    Friedrich Saurer 23:06 at the January 29, 2018 permalink | Login to write a comment Tags: aldehyde (3), alcohol (5), amines (2), carboxylic acid, esters (3), ethers (3), functional groups (2), haloalkanes (3), ketones (3), hydrocarbons (12), Nitro compound (2)

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    Keywords: organic molecule, organic molecules

    Friedrich Saurer 22:37 at the November 11, 2016 permalink | Login to write a comment Tags: foils (7), haloalkanes, halogens, halogenated hydrocarbons, teacher lecture (20), organic chemistry (15)