Known for the foundation that annually awards the Nobel Prizes, Alfred Nobel left the following statement in his will.
"All my assets shall be treated as follows. The capital shall be invested by my executors in secure securities and shall constitute a fund, the participation in which shall be distributed annually as a prize to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the great benefit to mankind.
Said participation shall be divided into five equal parts, where it shall be applied as follows: one part to the person who must have made the most important discovery or invention in the field of physics; a part for the person who must have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; a part for the person who must have made the most important discovery in the field of physiology or medicine; a part for the person who must have produced in the field of literature the most impressive work of an idealistic tendency; and a part for the person who must have done more, or better, work for brotherhood among nations, for the abolition or reduction of permanent armies, and for the conservation and encouragement of peace congresses.
The prize for physicists and chemists should be presented by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; physiology or medical work by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; the literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and for the peace champions by a five-person committee yet to be elected by Norwegian Storting. It is my expressed wish that when awarding the awards no consideration should be given to the nationality of the candidates, so that the most qualified should receive the award, whether Scandinavian or not. "
Paris, November 27, 1895
Alfred Bernard Nobel
Nobel laureates in physics
1901 - Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (Germany)
1902 - Hendrik A. Lorentz (Netherlands)
- Pieter Zeeman (Netherlands)
1903 - Antoine Henri Becquerel (France)
- Marie Curie (France)
- Pierre Curie (France)
1904 - Lord John William Rayleigh (Great Britain)
1905 - Philipp Eduard Anton Lenard (Germany)
1906 - Sir Joseph John Thomson (Great Britain)
1907 - Albert A. Michelson (United States)
1908 - Gabriel Jonas Lippmann (France)
1909 - Karl Ferdinand Braun (Germany)
- Guglielmo Marconi (Italy)
1910 - Johannes Diderik van der Waals (Netherlands)
1911 - Wilhelm Wien (Germany)
1912 - Nils Gustaf Dalén (Sweden)
1913 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (Netherlands)
1914 - Max von Laue (Germany)
1915 - Sir William Henry Bragg (Great Britain)
- Sir William Lawrence Bragg (Great Britain)