An electrified body is considered when it has a different number of protons and electrons, that is, when it is not neutral.
The process of removing or adding electrons to a neutral body so that it becomes electrified is called electrification. Some of the most common electrification processes are as follows.
This process was the first known. It was discovered around the 6th century BC by the Greek mathematician Tales of Miletus, who concluded that friction between certain materials could attract small pieces of straw and feathers.
Later, Tales's study was expanded, and it can be proved that two neutral bodies made of different materials, when rubbed together, one of them is negatively electrified (gains electrons) and another positively (loses electrons).
When there is friction electrification, both bodies have equal modulus loads but opposite signals. This electrification also depends on the nature of the material, for example, rubbing a material with a material leave it to me negatively charged and positively while the friction between the material and other material is able to let negatively charged and positively.
Conveniently a list has been drawn up in a given order that an element being rubbed against the list's successor is positively electrified. This list is called triboelectric series:
Another process capable of electrifying a body is by contact between them.
If two conductive bodies, at least one of them being electrified, are brought into contact, the electrical charge tends to stabilize and is redistributed between the two, causing both to have the same charge, even with the same signal.
The resultant load calculation is given by the arithmetic mean between the load of the conductors in contact. For example:
- A conducting body A with charge is contacted with another neutral body . What is the charge on each of them after being separated.
- A conducting body A with charge is brought into contact with another charged conducting body B , after the two are separated, body A is brought into contact with a third load conductive body C what is the charge on each one after being separated?
That is, at this time:
After the second contact, you have:
And in this moment:
That is, the charge after those counted in body A will be + 1C, in body B will be -2C and in body C will be + 1C.
An electrified body in contact with the earth will be neutralized, because if it lacks electrons, these will be donated by the earth and if it has excess electrons, they will be discharged into the earth.