Chemistry

Diseases caused by water (continued)


Dysentery

It is an infection in the large intestine that usually causes severe abdominal, mucosal, tenesmus and diarrhea pain, always accompanied by mucus and blood, after the initial stage of watery diarrhea.
It is caused by bacteria and amoebae.

The microorganisms that cause dysentery are spread on the hands, food and water contaminated with feces.

The main symptoms of this disease are fever, cough, intestinal cramps and decreased appetite, which can quickly lead to weight loss and even malnutrition.

To avoid this disease, we should take special care with the water we drink and the food:

- wash fruits and vegetables well;
- eating foods made on the same day or which have been stored in the refrigerator overnight;
- ingest only chlorinated or boiled filtered water
Be very careful with canned foods that may contain dangerous bacteria.

For the treatment of dysentery antibiotics and hydration are used. The doctor may also indicate a special diet

Also called schist, or snail disease, it is caused by a worm called schistosome. Worms live in the veins of the intestines and can cause diarrhea, weight loss, belly pain, which increases a lot of volume (water belly), and problems in various organs of the body.

Schistosome eggs come out along with the feces of the infected person. If there is no sump or sewerage, they can reach freshwater (lakes, ponds or streams, river banks). In water, eggs give rise to small larvae (animals other than adult worms) called miracidia. Larvae penetrate a type of snail called planorbid. Inside the snail, they reproduce and become other larvae, the cercariae, which come out of the snail and swim freely in the water.

The cercaria can penetrate through the skin people who use water from lakes, ponds, streams and other places to bathe, wash, work, fish or other activities.
In addition to treating the patient with medication, a sewer system must be installed to prevent eggs from reaching the water. People also need to have access to good quality water and to be informed about ways of transmitting the disease.

It is also necessary to combat the snail that transmits schistosomiasis with chemicals and the creation of fish that feed on the snail, such as tilapia, tambaqui and piau. These fish can be eaten by people without risk of contamination.

Malaria or malaria, among other designations, is an acute or chronic infectious disease caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmamodiumtransmitted by mosquito bite Anopheles.

Malaria kills 3 million people a year, a rate comparable only to AIDS, and affects more than 500 million people every year. In the early 1990s there were 100 million people with this disease worldwide. It is the leading tropical parasitosis and one of the most frequent causes of death in children in these countries: (kills one million children under 5 each year). According to WHO, malaria kills an African child every 30 seconds, and many children who survive severe cases suffer severe brain damage and have learning disabilities.

Malaria is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes. Anopheles. Transmission usually occurs in rural and semi-rural regions, but can occur in urban areas, especially on the outskirts. In cities situated at locations above 1500m, however, the risk of malaria is small. Mosquitoes are most active during the night, from dusk to dawn. They contaminate by biting the carriers of the disease, becoming the main vector of transmission of this disease to other people. The greatest risk of malaria acquisition is indoors, although transmission can also occur outdoors.

The malaria mosquito only survives in areas that have average minimum temperatures above 15 ° C, and only reaches enough individuals for disease transmission in regions where average temperatures are around 20-30 ° C and high humidity. . Only female mosquitoes bite men and feed on blood. Males live on plant sap. Larvae thrive in standing water, and maximum prevalence occurs during seasons with heavy rainfall.