Systems A system is an area that is subject to controlled changes, for example a defined amount of gas in a container. Depending on the possibility of exchanging material, heat or work with the environment, open, closed and closed systems are differentiated.
Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier, born in France on August 26, 1743, a great scientist, received careful education. He was the son of a rich family. He graduated in law, but his vocation was for the sciences. He worked in various public agencies. He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and is considered one of the founders of Modern Chemistry.
John Dalton was born on September 6, 1766, in Englesfield, England. It was an important English chemist who developed an atomic theory. His life was devoted to teaching and research. Dalton was the son of Joseph Dalton and Deborah Greenup. He had two brothers, Jonathan and Mary. He received his first teachings from his father and a teacher, John Fletcher.
Joseph Louis Proust was born in Angers, France, on September 26, 1754. His father was an apothecary. Proust studied Chemistry and Pharmacy. I would like to analyze the content of anything. He worked as head of pharmacy at the Hospital de Salpetrière in Paris. He moved to Spain in 1789, fleeing the French Revolution.
John Frederic Daniell, a British chemist, physicist and meteorologist, was born in London on March 12, 1790. In 1831, he was the first professor at the newly opened King's College in London. He invented the hygrometer and the pyrometer. He was a great scholar of electrochemistry. In the year 1836, Daniell built a pile.
Democritus of Abdera was an important Greek philosopher who lived from 460 to 370 BC. He was a disciple of Leucippus of Miletus (Greek philosopher). He was also an astronomer and mathematician. His ideas about atomism were that all matter was made up of small particles, which he named atoms, which means undividable particles.
Luigi Galvani was a scientist and doctor, born September 9, 1737, in Bologna, Italy. His contribution to chemistry was in the area of electrochemistry, in the development of batteries. He was a doctor's son. Studied Letters and Philosophy at the University. He graduated in Philosophy and Medicine in 1759. He studied chemistry and natural history at the University.
Friedrich August Kekulé was an important chemist born on September 7, 1829 in Germany. He developed formulas for organic compounds, created some postulates for the carbon atom, and formulated the structure of benzene. He began his academic studies at the University of Giessen, studying architecture.
Henri Louis Le Chatelier was a French chemist and metallurgist, born October 8, 1850 in Paris. His studies are based on research in the field of thermochemistry and chemical equilibrium of chemical reactions. He graduated from the Polytechnic School of France and the École des Mines in Paris. In this same school, he taught chemistry for a long time.
Murray Gell-Mann, born September 15, 1929, was a leading American physicist born in New Iork. His best known discovery was that of quarks, a particle found in the atom. His family is from Jewish immigrants. Since childhood, he was already a child prodigy. He graduated Bachelor of Science in 1948 from Yale University.
Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner was a chemist born on December 13, 1780 in Germany. He was the author of the triad laws of the Periodic Table. He was a coachman's son and had his formal education reduced. She was self-taught, and early at 14 she went to work as an assistant in a pharmacy. His early chemical knowledge caught the eye of Karl August, who secured him a nomination for the University of Yena.
Marie Skodowska Curie was born in Poland, Warsaw, former Russian Empire, on November 7, 1867. She was a famous character in the history of science. The first woman to win two Nobel Prizes, standing out as a university researcher, at a time when this area was dominated by men.
Germain Henri Ivanovitch Hess was a chemist born in Geneva, Switzerland, on August 7, 1802. He studied one of the most important principles of thermochemistry and developed Hess's Law. He studied medicine, chemistry, and geology at Tartu University from 1822 until 1825. He was a doctor until he became professor of chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1830.
Svante August Arrhenius was born on February 19, 1859 in Sweden. He was an important chemist, physicist and mathematician. Arrhenius studied at Upsala Cathedral School after his family moved from the city of Vik. Started at university at 17 years old. He later studied at Stockholm University. He taught physics at the University of Stockholm Superior Technical School.
Werner Karl Heisenber was born on December 5, 1901 in the city of Würzburg, Germany. He was a famous Nobel Prize-winning physicist. He started his physics course in 1920 in Munich. During a congress in Copenhagen, by Niels Bohr, Heisenberg expounded his ideas on Quantum Mechanics and from there, he became close friends with Bohr.
Linus Carl Pauling, born February 28, 1901 in Portland, USA was one of the most important chemists and received two Nobel Prizes. He was the son of Hermann Heinrich Wilhelm Pauling, of German descent, and of Lucy Isabelle Darling. Your father was a pharmacist. He had two sisters: Pauline and Frances Lucille.
Tomas Martin Lowry was an English chemist who together with chemist Johannes Nicolaus Bronsted developed an acid-base theory. Born on October 26, 1874, in England. He studied chemistry at Central Technical College in London, where he worked for 17 years as an assistant to Henry Edward Armstrong, a chemist who studied organic chemistry and the ionic behavior of aqueous solutions.
Henry Gwyn-Jeffreys Moseley, was an important chemist and physicist, born in 1887 in Weimouth, England. It was he who proposed the atomic number of the atoms of the elements. He worked together with Ernest Rutherford. Studied at Oxford and became Rector of Physics at Cambridge University.
Ernest Rutherford was born in Nelson, a port city south of New Zealand, on August 30, 1871. He was the fourth child in a family of twelve, six brothers and five sisters. His father was a Scottish mechanic and his mother was an English teacher. Rutherford studied in public schools and in 1893 graduated in Mathematics and Physical Sciences from the University of New Zealand.
Jacques Alexandre César Charles, born November 12, 1746 in Beaugency, France, was an important chemist and physicist who studied gases. He developed the theory that bears his name, Charles Law. As a child, his education had little science. He learned basic math and did few science experiments.